The antifungal activity of Iranian propolis samples against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains isolated from HIV+ patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis
Roozbeh Yarfani , Ali Reza Khosravi and Hojjatollah Shokri
Propolis is an antimicrobial agent whose composition can vary depending on the area from which it is collected. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro activity of two propolis samples from northern and southern Iran (Mazandaran and Hormozgan province respectively) against some fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strains isolated from HIV+ patients with oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC). The chemical composition of propolis samples was determined by high-resolution gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Ethanolic extracts were prepared from the propolis samples. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) of propolis on the growth of C. albicans isolates were determined using the broth microdilution method. The main compounds of propolis extracts were aromatic acids such as caffeic acid (1.6% for northern and 2.2% for southern samples). The propolis extracts showed antifungal activities; the concentrations capable of inhibiting all of the yeasts ranged from 2 to 20 mg/mL. Propolis from southern Iran showed the most effective MIC values for the yeasts studied. Because of increased antifungal resistance, propolis may be kept in mind in the treatment of oral cavity diseases such as OPC in HIV+ patients.