A palynological analysis of Brazilian propolis samples
Alex da Silva de Freitas, Ortrud Monika Barth, Érika de Oliveira Sales, Adriana Hitomi Matsuda and Ligia Bicudo de Almeida-Muradian
Twenty eight propolis samples, collected in different apiaries located in the Northeast, Southeast and South Brazilian regions were examined for pollen content. In order to facilitate analysis, wax and resin was removed with ethanol, followed by acetolysis and ultrasound treatment. The target number of pollen grains was 300 or more per sample. The dominant pollen types detected in the Northeast samples were Mimosa verrucosa (Bahia state) and Borreria (Rio Grande do Norte state), followed by Acacia (Rio Grande do Norte state). In the Southeast samples, Minas Gerais state were dominated by Asteraceae followed by Eucalyptus, Cecropia and Solanaceae. In the São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro state samples, the dominant pollen types were Asteraceae and Eucalyptus. In the South region samples, Asteraceae (Paraná state) and Eucalyptus (Rio Grande do Sul state) were dominant. Pollen grains of nectariferous plants were also common and dominant, and pollen of anemophilous plant taxa were also frequent. Analysis of the pollen types found in propolis samples from the Brazilian regions demonstrates that samples from the Northeast could be distinguished from those from the South and Southeast.