Honey bees have fascinated mankind since the Stone Age. The oldest evidence of honey collection by humans dates from c. 6000 BC in a cave near Valencia in Spain. Subsequent to the interest in their honey, the only sweetener available in the wild, honey bees have also captured the attention of people because of their social organization. In 1973, the Nobel Prize in physiology and medicine was awarded to Karl von Frisch, Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz "for their discoveries concerning organisation and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns" especially the description of the honey bee dance language by Karl von Frisch. More recently, honey bees have drawn the attention of the public and stakeholders because of higher than normal mortalities of colonies reported by beekeepers in many countries for which the exact causes remain largely unknown. There is, however, a scientific consensus that there is no single cause for these losses, which are undoubtedly caused by a combination of a number of factors.