Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera

publication date: Sep 1, 2013
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Journal of Apicultural Research
Vol. 52(4)
DOI
10.3896/IBRA.1.52.4.05
Date
September 2013
Article Title

Standard methods for characterising subspecies and ecotypes of Apis mellifera

Author(s)

Marina D Meixner, Maria Alice Pinto, Maria Bouga, Per Kryger, Evgeniya Ivanova and Stefan Fuchs

Abstract

The natural diversity of honey bees in Europe is eroding fast. A multitude of reasons lead to a loss of both genetic diversity and specific adaptations to local conditions. To preserve locally adapted bees through breeding efforts and to maintain regional strains in conservation areas, these valuable populations need to be identified. In this paper, we give an overview of methods that are currently available and used for recognition of honey bee subspecies and ecotypes, or that can be utilised to verify the genetic origin of colonies for breeding purposes. Beyond summarising details of morphometric, allozyme and DNA methods currently in use, we report recommendations with regard to strategies for sampling, and suggest methods for statistical data analysis. In particular, we emphasise the importance of reference data and consistency of methods between laboratories to yield comparable results.

Keywords

COLOSS, BEEBOOK, Apis mellifera, honey bee, subspecies identification, ecotype, classical morphometry, geometric morphometry, allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, microsatellites, SNP analysis

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