The nutrient composition of honeybee-collected pollen in Otago, New Zealand
Sarah Day, Richard Beyer, Alison Mercer, Stephen Ogden
The following pollen species were analysed for moisture, fat, carbohydrate, minerals and amino acids: white clover (Trifolium repens L.), willow (Salix sp. L.), hawkweed (Hieracium pilosela L.), broom (Cytisus sp. L.), bush lawyer/blackberry (Rubus sp. L.), matagouri (Discaria toumatou Raoul), pine (Pinus sp. L.), thistle (Cirsium sp. Miller) and kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev.). The moisture content of the pollen ranged from 16.8% (matagouri) to 25.9% (willow). The fat content ranged from 0.17% (staminate kiwifruit pollen) to 13.40% (hawkweed). Total carbohydrate ranged from 12·6% (matagouri) to 29.6% (pistillate kiwifruit), while reducing sugars ranged from 11.1% (matagouri) to 25.7% (pistillate kiwifruit). The protein content, which is commonly regarded as an index of nutritional quality ranged from 2.9% (pistillate kiwifruit) to 23.5% (broom). Most of the species analysed contained sufficient nutrients for honeybee growth and development.
nutrient composition, honeybee-collected pollen, Otago, New Zealand