Nosema ceranae has been infecting honey bees Apis mellifera in Italy since at least 1993
Ezio Ferroglio, Stefania Zanet, Nancy Peraldo, Elisa Tachis, Anna Trisciuoglio, Daniela Laurino and Marco Porporato
Nosema ceranae is a microsporidian parasite regarded as one of the emerging pathogens affecting honey bees worldwide. Originally found in the Asian honey bee A. cerana, its presence in Europecan be dated back to 1998. A temporal sequence of N=6 samples from Northwestern Italy from 1993 to 2010 was analyzed by PCR for the presence of N. ceranae and N. apis. N. ceranae was detected in 4 samples (1 from 1993, 1 from 1998, 2 from 2010), N. apis was detected in 2 samples from 1993. The resulting N. ceranae sequence fragments showed 100% homology with N. ceranae Genebank-deposited sequences. Our data provide evidence that N. ceranae has been present in honey bees from NW Italy since at least 1993, and that the pathogen was introduced in honey bees in Europe well before its first report in 2005.