Lifespan of Apis mellifera carnica Pollm. infested by Varroa jacobson Oud. in relation to season and extent of infestation
Helmut Kovac And Karl Crailsheim
Longevity, duration of hive-bound period, and foraging period, of worker bees, infested or not infested during their pupal development, were investigated during the whole year. Shortening of lifespan depended on the extent of infestation and on season. Influence of infestation on lifespan could be shown during hive-bound and foraging periods; no influence could be shown on flight activity. Drastic differences occurred during winter; in 4 observation hives, only 4-18% of the infested bees that had emerged in September, survived until the following March.