This second paper gives the history of instrumental insemination from 1935 to the present day (Part 1)
In the autumn of 1935 two seemingly unrelated and hardly noteworthy events occurred: (1) Dr Otto Mackensen was employed by the USDA as a geneticist, and he was stationed at the bee laboratory in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Mackensen had just received a doctorate in genetics from the University of Texas. He was not a novice in apiculture, having had beekeeping experience that included bee inspection in Texas. His main responsibility as geneticist was to conduct research on bee genetics and breeding, and specifically to investigate supersedure of package bee queens, (2) Laidlaw, having received the degree of Master of Science from Louisiana State University in 1934, matriculated at the University of Wisconsin to earn a doctorate in genetics and entomology.