Instrumental insemination of honeybee Queens: its origin and development
Harry H Laidlaw, Jr.
This first paper gives the early history of instrumental insemination up to 1935. The second paper (Part 2) (in 1987 Bee World no. 2) describes instrumental insemination from 1935 to the present day.
Instrumental insemination is fast becoming an indispensable element of contemporary apiculture. Genetic and breeding research, accentuation of resistance or immunity to diseases, selection of desirable characteristics, and their intensification and combination, modification of undesirable traits and creation of lines for special uses would not be possible, or would be extremely difficult, without instrumental inseminations. It has a relatively short history. Yet many of the present generation of students, apicultural scientists, and beekeepers would not recognize the names nor the contributions of those workers who by meticulous experimentation and unyielding attention and determination pursued a goal considered by nearly everyone to be impossible to attain (Fig. 1).
Instrumental insemination, honeybee queens, development