Notes and Comments
Sufficient winter longevity of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) is critical for colony performance. For example, the pollination of almonds in California, USA requires populous colonies in February. Furthermore, the dwindling of colony populations in winter and spring could be due to insufficient longevity of winter bees. The size of colonies in winter and spring might be improved if bees had increased longevity as a result of artificial selection.