Within the last 15 years Varroa jacobsoni has become a subject of concern to beekeepers in many parts of the world. First noted as a parasite of the Asian honeybee species Apis cerana in 1904, the mite has spread to Apis mellifera and has been carried by man with these bees to many countries in Europe, Africa and South America. The effect of Varroa on Apis mellifera colonies is often severe. There are reports of extensive colony mortality due to Varroa in Europe, the Near East and South America: from USSR, Bulgaria, China, Japan, Turkey, Iran, German Federal Republic, Argentina and Uruguay. In Bulgaria, parasitized colonies reportedly begin dying in autumn of the first year of the infestation, and frequently all colonies within an apiary die within 3-5 years. However, in Paraguay and Brazil where the mites have been present for at least 10 years, there have been no reports of colony deaths.