The title of this editorial, and the similar title of the most recent IBRA conference in London reflects a growing awareness and interest in the demise of the world's wild bees, and the impact this may have on other wildlife, ecosystems (including agroecosystems) and the world's economy. Invertebrate Red Data Book and analagous lists invariably contain a high percentage of the bee species of a geographical location. As an example, over 50% of the bee species in the state of Baden Wurttemberg, SW Germany, are considered to be under threat. The situation seems little better elsewhere. Many bee species appear threatened with extinction, with the general consensus of opinion falling on humans as the culprits, through their degradation and destruction of habitats.