Behaviour and ecology of the subtropical carpenter bee, Xylocopa fenestrata F. 8. Life cycle, seasonal mortality, parasites and sex ratio
R C Sihag
Xylocopa fenestrata in a semi-arid subtropical climate at Hisar, India, exhibited a multivoltine life cycle, producing seven seasonal broods which could be characterized by the range of ambient temperatures experienced. Amounts of parasitization and mortality due to other causes varied with the seasons. Late summer was the most unfavourable season, with high parasitization and mortality, and minimal brood production. Early summer and early autumn were favourable periods for this bee, when large amounts of brood were produced. Adult emergence, parasitization and seasonal mortality in the various seasons were cyclic. The sex ratio in different seasonal broods was generally female-biased, especially during early summer and early autumn. There was no diapauses during the developmental stages.
Xylocopa fenestrata, carpenter bees, life cycle, seasonal cycle, mortality, parasitization, sex ratio, India