Pests and pathogens of the honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) in Fiji
Denis L. Anderson
The occurrence and distribution of pests and pathogens of the honeybee, Apis mellifera L., in Fiji, surveyed during October November 1986, are reported. American foulbrood disease was detected in 33 (47%) hived colonies at one locality but in only 1 (0' 8%) of all other colonies examined in other localities. Infestations of wax moth (Galleria mellonella or Achroia grisella) were observed in 139 (70%) hived colonies. The cane toad Bufo marinus was also observed as a pest of bee colonies. Chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) and sacbrood virus (SBV) were present in 30 (31%) and 76 (79%) hived colonies, respectively. Bee virus X, bee virus Y, black queen cell virus (BQCV), Kashmir bee virus (KBV), and slow bee paralysis virus were also detected in these colonies but they were less common than CBPV and SBV. Inapparent infections of SBV, BQCV and KBV were detected in seemingly healthy bees from hived colonies. SBV and CBPV were also detected in feral colonies. The Fijian KBV isolates were serologically distinguishable from New Zealand and Australian KBV isolates. Nosema apis, was found in 45 (47%) hived colonies. It was also detected in feral colonies. Malpighamoeba mellificae was detected in worker bees from 1 hived colony. European foulbrood and chalkbrood disease, the tracheal bee mite, Acarapis woodi, and other mites such as Varroa jacobsoni and Tropilaelaps clareae, were not detected in any colonies.