Ingrid H Willlams, Paul Padjus, Ellen Parn, Mart Rootslane, Juri Susl
The Republic of Estonia, the northernmost of the three Baltic States, regained its independence in 1991 after c. 50 years of postwar Soviet occupation. In comparison to other European States, its land area is small, c. 45 000 km2 extending 350 km from west to east and 240 km from north to south (fig. 1), yet larger than Denmark, Switzerland, Belgium or the Netherlands. Geographically, Estonia is part of the great East European Plain with 90% of the country less than 100 m above sea level. Its climate is characteristic of the continental mixed forest zone, but tempered in winter by the Baltic Sea and the Gulf Stream. The vegetation period (average temperature above SOC) ranges from 145 to 165 days per year. Average annual precipitation ranges from 55 to 65 cm20. Its people are of the ancient Fenno-Ugrian race and have one of the longest traditions of beekeeping in Europe, which we explore in this article.
Beekeepking, Estonia, Honey Hunting, Tree Beekeeping, Log-hive Beekeeping