EFFECT OF SEX ALLELE HOMO-HETEROZYGOSITY ON HONEYBEE COLONY POPULATIONS AND ON THEIR HONEY PRODUCTION. 2. UNFAVOURABLE DEVELOPMENT CONDITIONS AND RESTRICTED QUEENS
Of 33 virgin queens mated to two of their brothers, 8, 16 and 9, respectively, produced brood of which 100%, 75% and 50% survived. Each queen was restricted to a single brood chamber by a queen excluder, and the 1979 season was unfavourable for colony development, so colonies did not reach their full summer potential. Similar brood areas were found in colonies of all groups in early spring and in autumn. In summer, colonies with brood of 50% and 75% survival respectively produced 67% and 81% of the brood area in the normal colonies, 63% and 85% of the worker population, and 75% and 87% of the surplus honey harvest, which was 13·3 kg in normal colonies. Of normal colonies, those headed by queens 2 years old produced 77·3% as much brood, 85·6% of the adult worker population, and 80·5% as much honey, as those with queens 1 year old. Differences between colonies with brood of 75% and 100% survival rates were, however, smaller for colonies with queens 2 years old than for those with queens 1 year old.