EFFECT OF HONEYBEE NASONOV AND ALARM PHEROMONE COMPONENTS ON BEHAVIOUR AT THE NEST ENTRANCE
J. B. FREE, A. W. FERGUSON, J R. SIMPKINS AND B. N. AL-SA'AD
Possible pheromonal components identified from the sting apparatus, mandibular gland and Nasonov gland of worker honeybees (Apis mellifera) were tested in an attempt to elucidate their function. Other chemicals known to affect behaviour were also tested. The components iso-pentyl acetate and n-octyl acetate from the sting, and 2-heptanone from the mandibular glands, repelled bees and diminished Nasonov gland exposure (scenting); I-pentanol and (Z)-ll-eicosen-I-ol from the sting diminished scenting; iso-pentyl acetate, n-butyl acetate, 2-nonanol and I-pentanol, all from the sting, and 2-heptanone, released stinging. The alarm pheromones 2-heptanol and 3-octanone (from certain stingless bees and ants) inhibited scenting, and the former also repelled bees and released aggression. The chemicals iso-butyl acetate, sec-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate diminished scenting, and the insect repellents dimethyl phthalate and diethyl toluamide diminished stinging. Many of the chemicals from the honeybee sting apparatus failed to elicit a response, and their function remains unknown.