MUTATION IN HONEYBEES 2. AVERAGE RATE OF MUTATION BASED ON SEVEN GENES FOR EYE COLOUR
JOSE CHAUD-NETT0, WARWICK ESTEVAM KERR AND MARCELA A. F. BEZERRA
The average numbers of ommatidia in the eyes of workers was 3826 and in the eyes of males 7082. Somatic mutations from recessive to dominant were detected in 7 genes, some reported in this paper, some in an earlier publication. The rates of reverse mutation estimated for males were: for cll', fl=3'38 x 10-6 ; for oc, fl= 1'96 x 10-6 ; for pe, fl=0'17 x 10-6 , for Sl', fl= 1'10 X 10-6 and for sp, fl=2 '17 x 10-6 . The average was fl= 1'75 x 10-6 or, without pe, fl=2'15 X 10-6 . Estimates for workers were: for by, fl=0'67 x 10-6 ; for cll', fl= 1'45 x 10-6 ; for cll\ fl= l' 39 x 10-6 ; for oc, fl= l' 56 x 10-6; for s", fl=0'25 x 10-6 ; for sp, fl=1'53 x 10-6 . The average for workers was fl=1'14 X 10-6 or, without Sl', f\=1'32 x 10-6. The balanced average somatic mutation rate for drones and workers was fl= 1'6 X 10-6. So far, cr has not shown a single case of reverse mutation, which indicates that either its rate of mutation is less than 2'0 x 10-8 or that it results from a chromosomal deletion. In all cases the mutation rate for a particular gene was greater in males than in workers.