Mitochondrial DNA diversity and population structure of the honey bee, Apis cerana, in Thailand
D Sihanuntavong; S Sittipraneed; S Klinbunga
Genetic variation and population differentiation of Apis cerana in Thailand were examined by restriction analysis of amplified mitochondrial srRNA and lrRNA genes, and the intergenic CO1-CO2 region with DraI. Twelve composite haplotypes were found from 170 colonies investigated. Large genetic differences were observed among A. cerana populations from northern and peninsular Thailand. The population from Samui Island was distinct, whereas A.cerana from Phuket Island was genetically similar to that from peninsular Thailand. Geographic heterogeneity analysis and FST estimates indicated a high level of population subdivision in this species (P < 0.0001 and FST = 0.604). Using percent sequence divergence as a measure of genetic distance, three distinct groups were found using the clustering algorithm UPGMA. These were: north Thailand (A), peninsular Thailand, and Phuket (B) and Samui Islands (C).