Flight activity of Xylocopa (Nyctomelitta) tranquebarica: a night flying carpenter bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae)
D Michael Burgett; Prachaval Sukumalanand
The nocturnal flight of Xylocopa (Nycomelitta) tranquebarica was investigated in northern Thailand. X. (N.) tranquebarica females utilize crepuscular and matinal periods for foraging. Additionally, nocturnal flights, in the presence moonlight, also occur. Flight during periods of total darkness was very rare and is considered aberrant. Foraging flights averaged 11.5 min with a range of less than one minute to greater than one hour. The number of flights per night ranged from one to nine, with an average of 4.7 flights. Foraging took place at ambient temperatures as low as 13°C.