Wing geometry as a tool for studying the population structure of dwarf honey bees (Apis florea Fabricius 1876) in Iran
İrfan Kandemir, Mohammad G. Moradi, Berna Özden and Ayça Özkan
We studied the population structure of Apis florea using geometric morphometrics of wing shape. We found that the populations from different states were significantly (P<0.001) different for both fore and hind wings. Populations from Hormuzgan State were significantly (P<0.001) different from the rest of the states for hind wings. Based on the fore wing shape, all populations were significantly (P<0.001) different. Out of 40 cartesian coordinates, 13 were significantly (P<0.05) different amongst the group. Discriminant Function Analysis resulted in clear separation of groups when fore wing shape were used, but hind wings failed to separate the groups. Only samples from Hormuzgan State were clearly separated from the other states when the hind wings were used as the discriminating variables. Wing deformations were visualized in thin plate splines and the highest deformations were seen in pairs with samples from Hormuzgan State. Spatial Autocorrelation Analysis resulted in a total of 26 significant correlograms and most of these were clinal type autocorrelograms showing gradual changes from southeast to northwest direction.