Application of Principal Component Analysis for evaluation of chemical and antimicrobial properties of honey bee (Apis mellifera) venom
Zenon J. Kokot, Jan Matysiak, Jolanta Kłos, Bogdan Kędzia and Elżbieta Hołderna-Kędzia
The aim of this study was to employ Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to clarify the general distribution patterns or similarities of four major constituents (apamine, phospholipase A2, mast cell degranulating peptide, and melittin) of bee venom collected from two honey bee strains in various months and years. The contents of these main bee venom components have been analyzed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). In addition, the antimicrobial activity of the product was characterized by determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC). Using PCA it might be possible to find and describe the correlation between the constituents of bee venom and their antibacterial activity. This is probably the first study in which the composition and activity of bee venom has been compared applying such approach. It was shown that the strain of bee appears to be the only criteria for bee venom sample classification. Moreover, a strong correlation between phospholipase A2 and melittin was confirmed. PCA analysis showed that there is a weak relationship between the analyzed honey bee venom constituents and MIC values. Minor components of bee venom therefore probably also significantly influence its antimicrobial activity.
honey bee venom, High Perfromance Liquid Chromatography, HPLC, Principle Component Analysis, PCA, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, MIC