Chalkbrood (Ascosphaera apis) and some other fungi associated with Africanized honey bees (Apis mellifera) in Costa Rica
Rafael A Calderon, German Rivera, Luis A Sanchez and Luis G
There are few reports of the presence of chalkbrood and other fungal diseases in Africanized honey bees (AHB) in Costa Rica. Chalkbrood is a fungal disease that occurs in larvae of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It is caused by Ascosphaera apis, a heterothallic organism that sporulates only when mycelia of opposite strain come together (Gilliam & Vandenberg, 1990). This fungal disease is not considered a serious problem in many countries, and it is generally reported as a transient condition (Gilliam & Vandenberg, 1990). Although experiments have shown that brood is most susceptible to infection when it has been chilled, chalkbrood can occur even in warm climates when colonies have insufficient adult bees to incubate their brood adequately (Bailey & Ball, 1991). The sudden loss of adult bees following infestation with Varroa destructor may, as a consequence, indirectly increase chalkbrood even in the warmer climates (Medina & Mejia, 1999).