Recent increases in the global area planted in GM crops have been accompanied by rising public awareness of agricultural practices and concern about the environment. Honey bees are widely recognized as important beneficial insects. In most countries, regulators assessing potential risks and benefits from GM plants list the honey bee among the 'non-target' species that need to be considered before these plants are released. Research on honey bees and GM crops has focused on the presence of GM material in honey, the roles that bees may play in the flow of genes from GM crops, and the potential impacts of GM plants on bee health. This article summarizes research on bee health and GM. There is now a considerable body of knowledge on this topic and some well-established techniques for assessing risks to bees before new plants are released.